What does where the pain lies tell you about the nature of a headache?

Most headaches around the eyes, cheeks, temples, and top, back or base of the skull involve the muscles, connective tissue (myofascia), nerves or structures around the joints of the jaw, ear, and/or sinuses. These headaches can be primarily caused by a direct strain or sprain, or secondarily caused by drug side effects or other conditions that precipitate inflammation in those areas. The brain tissue itself does not have nerve endings that perceive pain, but the tissue surrounding it certainly does!

There are many muscles in the neck and head. I’ll primarily address the myofascial pain pattern of each one, since their are too many related conditions and drug effects to list in a single answer. In any case, a thorough examination by a physician to determine the cause of the pain would still be called for.Areas of pain in muscles (from Travell and Simons’ Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction, volume I) are grouped into the following areas:

Varieties of headache (from Travell and Simons' "Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction," volume I)

(Ch.5, pg.167)

The muscles that create the referred pain in these areas are grouped here, in the same text:

Travell and Simons' "Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction," volume I

If you are curious about the specific pain pattern of a particular muscle, you can visit this site (or other similar accredited sites) to find out: National Association of Myofascial Trigger Point Therapists.

For the temporalis muscle, a sample pattern might look like this:

Temporalis muscle

Muscles of the neck can refer pain locally or up into areas of the head, including the face and jaw. Most facial muscles (including muscles of the eye, ear and jaw) tend to refer pain very locally; they very rarely refer down to the neck.

Pain in the face and jaw, especially, tend to indicate problems with the sinuses, eyes, muscles of mastication (chewing), dental problems (such as malocclusion or infection), or some other local infection (such as a cold or flu). Pain can be triggered by any recurrent infection or source of inflammation, even cancer. This essentially means that therapy for the muscles may provide temporary relief, but since the primary trigger has not been resolved, it will keep recurring.

If the problem is primarily myofascial, correction of any source of mechanical strain (including postural or ergonomic strain) must be removed or at least reduced for the therapy to be effective and lasting.  

The first 3 books on this list are my favorites on non-migraine headaches for the layperson: Amazon.com: trigger points and headache: Books

BUT, of course, if a headache is especially severe, has lasted for longer than three days, happens repeatedly, is interfering with your functioning significantly, is affecting your eyesight, hearing, balance, cognitive function, or is doing anything other than just making your head hurt, please go see a doctor right away!